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Initial Specialty Set: Blind and Visual Impairments

Preparation Standard 1: Learner Development and Individual Learning Differences

BVI.1.K1 Development of the human visual system and areas of the brain involved in processing visual images
BVI.1.K2 Most prevalent causes of severe, uncorrectable visual impairment in children and youth ages birth to 22
BVI.1.K3 Terminology related to diseases and disorders of the human visual system, including cerebral/cortical visual impairment
BVI.1.K4 Implications of prevalent visual conditions
BVI.1.K5 Sensory development and its impact on development and learning when vision is impaired
BVI.1.K6 Impact and implications of sociocultural/psychosocial factors on social-emotional development


BVI.1.S1 Accurately read, interpret, and summarize eye reports and serve as liaison to families and other members of the educational team to individualize services
BVI.1.S2 Select and develop assessment and teaching strategies, accommodations and modifications that address age, visual impairment, family values and priorities, visual prognosis, and other individual characteristics
BVI.1.S3 Use nonvisual/alternate strategies to promote attachment, early communication/literacy, orientation and mobility, and independence to address the effects of visual impairment on families and the reciprocal impact on individuals’ self-esteem
BVI.1.S4 Select, adapt, and use nonvisual/alternate instructional strategies to address co-occurring disabilities and other individual characteristics

Preparation Standard 2: Learning Environments

BVI.2.K1 Physical and virtual environmental factors that impact the acquisition of spatial and positional concepts, access to and synthesis of data visualizations, and other concepts typically acquired through vision


BVI.2.S1 Identify and implement physical and virtual environmental accommodations and modifications to facilitate optimal sensory use and multisensory access to, and active participation in, individual and group activities in general and expanded core curriculum environments
BVI.2.S2 Collaborate with team members to design and implement environments that promote optimal sensory use, foundational orientation and mobility skills, independence, social engagement, and efficient storage of specialized materials
BVI.2.S3 Identify unique issues specific to visual impairment for accessing digital multimedia and virtually built environments
BVI.2.S4 Use ergonomics and appropriate technology settings aligned with students’ preferred learning media and low tech strategies to support ubiquitous computing to promote access to the general and expanded core curriculum
BVI.2.S5 Facilitate incidental learning experiences to address nonvisual access to physical and virtual environments
BVI.2.S6 Evaluate social skills and design behavior strategies for learners with visual impairments to maximize positive social engagement and interaction across environments
BVI.2.S7 Teach developmentally appropriate human guide, self-familiarization with new environments, protective, and alignment techniques for independent travel to promote safety across environments
BVI.2.S8 Teach orientation skills using environmental features, self-advocacy for optimal environmental accommodations and modifications, including requesting and refusing assistance as needed
BVI.2.S9 Teach nonvisual and alternate strategies for promoting digital citizenship and secure online practices

Preparation Standard 3: Curricular Content Knowledge

BVI.3.K1 Relationship of individualized assessment, intervention planning/implementation, development of individualized education programs/individualized family service plans, progress monitoring, and placement specific to unique needs of visual impairment
BVI.3.K2 Advantages and disadvantages of a wide range of instructional and assistive technologies specific to visual impairment


BVI.3.S1 Demonstrate proficiency in reading, writing, proofreading, and interlining alphabetic and fully contracted Unified English Braille
BVI.3.S2 Demonstrate basic proficiency in reading and writing braille for mathematic and scientific notation and in using the abacus
BVI.3.S3 Produce braille with brailler, slate and stylus, computer (including use of braille translation software), and braille production methods
BVI.3.S4 Demonstrate basic proficiency in human guide, protective, alignment, and search techniques in orientation and mobility with developmentally appropriate modifications
BVI.3.S5 Identify specialized resources unique to visual impairment to address the specific communication needs of students with varied communication abilities, reading levels, and language proficiency
BVI.3.S6 Develop, implement, and continuously monitor learning objectives and goals for optimizing sensory efficiency, developing concepts, and accessing the general and expanded core curriculum across settings
BVI.3.S7 Identify and adapt general education and visual impairment specific curricula for instruction of literacy, other academic areas, and the expanded core curriculum

Preparation Standard 4: Assessment

BVI.4.K1 Challenges of assessing students with visual impairments and co-occurring disabilities
BVI.4.K2 Options for specialized assessment materials and equipment for unique sensory needs
BVI.4.K3 Role of specialized, individualized assessment data unique to visual impairment for pre-referral, referral, annual, and tri-annual processes
BVI.4.K4 Knowledge of federal and state requirements for eligibility and for timing of assessments
BVI.4.K5 Implications of short and long term use of accommodations and modifications unique to students with visual impairments


BVI.4.S1 Interpret medical reports and multiple sources of data, including background information and family history, to plan and implement nondiscriminatory assessments
BVI.4.S2 Use multiple sources of valid information/data, including data from formal/informal assessments to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention, instruction, specialized media, materials, equipment, and the physical environment
BVI.4.S3 Use valid assessment results and medical reports to determine eligibility for vision specific services, for students with and without specific visual diagnoses
BVI.4.S4 Use valid assessment data and knowledge of the potential impact of visual impairment on psychosocial functioning to identify when referral for services is needed
BVI.4.S5 Adapt assessments when tests are not validated on individuals with visual impairments to determine baseline performance
BVI.4.S6 Identify assessment items and measures that are biased and make recommendations for non-visual or alternate accommodations and modifications
BVI.4.S7 Collaborate with team members and families to plan and implement assessment and interpret assessment results on issues specific to visual impairment
BVI.4.S8 Conduct individualized functional vision, learning media, assistive technology and other expanded core curriculum-related assessments
BVI.4.S9 Interpret and/or assess cognitive, motor, social, and language concepts unique to individuals with visual impairments
BVI.4.S10 Use multiple sources of data to determine appropriate learning and literacy media (braille, print, or dual) and assistive technology
BVI.4.S11 Interpret assessment results to determine individual needs to support acquisition of skills in the general and expanded core curriculum
BVI.4.S12 Advocate for reasonable nonvisual and alternate accommodations and modifications on standardized assessments
BVI.4.S13 Address limitations of standard scores and non-standard data when communicating visual impairment specific assessment data to educational teams and families.
BVI.4.S14 Assess accessibility needs of individuals who are visually impaired who are English learners or from diverse backgrounds
BVI.4.S15 Use results of clinical low vision evaluation, functional vision, learning media, and assistive technology assessments to identify optimal assistive technology

Preparation Standard 5: Instructional Planning & Strategies

BVI.5.K1 Proper use and care of braille and braille production devices and technology equipment, including maintenance of devices and software updates
BVI.5.K2 Importance of creating positive, productive learning environments that foster independence and student achievement, and that reduce the tendency of others to engender learned helplessness in learners with visual impairments
BVI.5.K3 Knowledge of evidence-based practices for teaching students with visual impairments


BVI.5.S1 Develop, coordinate, and implement appropriate programs for infants and young children with visual impairment, including those with co-occurring disabilities, and their families
BVI.5.S2 Obtain resources, including published curricula, for braille codes currently in use
BVI.5.S3 Use digital resources, hardware, and software to produce and access materials in accessible media including the conversion of print materials into braille, tactile, and/or digital formats
BVI.5.S4 Teach varied visual, nonvisual, and multi-sensory devices, programs, and software to launch, navigate, save, and retrieve information on devices and local systems and online
BVI.5.S5 Select and use various visual, nonvisual, multisensory, and adaptive methods to teach technology skills by integrating students’ assessed needs into instructional methods for teaching sensory efficiency skills, use of learning media, individual keyboarding, reading, writing, editing, and listening skills
BVI.5.S6 Plan and implement explicit instruction in assistive technology, including digital citizenship, that integrates students’ ability to meet, manage, and advocate for their own needs
BVI.5.S7 Integrate basic principles of accessibility to select, create, adapt, and format text, images, and media to promote usability and accessibility to meet the individual needs of students with visual impairments
BVI.5.S8 Provide systematic, explicit braille literacy instruction using embossed materials and digital technologies to meet individual needs
BVI.5.S9 Teach the use of the abacus, accessible calculator, tactile graphics, adapted equipment, and appropriate technology for mathematics and science instruction to meet individual needs
BVI.5.S10 Teach students to access, interpret, and create increasingly complex printed and digital graphics in visual and/or tactile forms, including maps, charts, diagrams, and tables, based on individual needs
BVI.5.S11 Teach students with low vision to use optical, electronic, and non-optical devices to optimize visual efficiency and independently use dual learning media such as visual and auditory information, or auditory and tactile information
BVI.5.S12 Promote and reinforce sensorimotor and physical skills, including gross and fine motor skills, posture, balance, purposeful movement, and strength to meet individual needs unique to visual impairment
BVI.5.S13 Teach basic orientation, body image, spatial, temporal, positional, directional, and environmental concepts based on individual needs to promote motor skill development, orientation and mobility, and academic and social inclusion
BVI.5.S14 Teach and reinforce human guide techniques to students with visual impairment, their peers, and others who interact with them
BVI.5.S15 Orient students to unfamiliar environments
BVI.5.S16 Reinforce skills taught by orientation and mobility specialists to support the use of mobility devices and dog guides, for orientation and mobility
BVI.5.S17 Teach independent living and organization skills using alternate and nonvisual strategies
BVI.5.S18 Teach social communication skills related to appropriate body language, non-verbal communication, and social etiquette
BVI.5.S19 Teach development and monitoring of relationships and friendships, and knowledge of self, including human sexuality
BVI.5.S20 Teach skills usually acquired visually to develop and enhance participation in fitness/leisure/recreation activities, hobbies, and team and spectator sports to facilitate inclusion across settings
BVI.5.S21 Teach students to recognize and report behaviors that they may not perceive visually that may threaten their personal safety and well being
BVI.5.S22 Teach students their legal rights and responsibilities related to being a citizen with a visual impairment
BVI.5.S23 Prepare students with progressive visual conditions to transition to alternative skills
BVI.5.S24 Collaboratively develop, implement, and continuously monitor communication goals, objectives, and systems for students with visual impairments and co-occurring disabilities
BVI.5.S25 Teach students to recognize and report behaviors that they may not perceive visually that may threaten their personal safety and well being
BVI.5.S26 Select, adapt, and use nonvisual/alternate instructional strategies to address co-occurring disabilities
BVI.5.S27 Knowledge of a range of cost effective technological devices from low to high tech for the instructional needs specific to visual impairment

Preparation Standard 6: Professional Learning and Ethical Practice

BVI.6.K1 Roles and responsibilities of teachers and support personnel in providing services for students with visual impairments in a range of settings
BVI.6.K2 Current knowledge of eligibility criteria for specialized services, funding, and materials sources specific to visual impairment
BVI.6.K3 Historical, political, and sociocultural forces unique to the education of students with visual impairments
BVI.6.K4 Awareness of the impact of nonverbal reactions and behaviors that are not accessible to students with visual impairments
BVI.6.K5 Role in determining and recommending appropriate type and amount of services based on evaluation of needs in all areas of the expanded core curriculum
BVI.6.K6 Current knowledge of laws that impact and protect individuals with visual impairments
BVI.6.K7 Roles of all members of educational/vision care teams


BVI.6.S1 Develop and maintain professional learning and practice by actively participating in professional organizations
BVI.6.S2 Articulate instructional and professional philosophies and ethical practices to address the specific needs of students with visual impairment across settings including the expanded core curriculum
BVI.6.S3 Articulate and advocate for individual needs regarding placement, service delivery models, type and amount of service, and key components of services unique to visual impairment across ages and settings
BVI.6.S4 Advocate for reasonable nonvisual and alternate accommodations and modifications on standardized assessments
BVI.6.S5 Advocate for evidence-based educational policy related to visual impairment and low incidence disabilities
BVI.6.S6 Articulate a plan for maintaining continuous professional development to remain current on all areas of the expanded core curriculum, with particular attention to assistive and instructional technology, most prevalent causes of and medical treatments for severe visual impairment, and co-occurring disabilities
BVI.6.S7 Evaluate and discern credible and scholarly sources of information about visual impairments, including knowledge of valid and reliable research techniques

Preparation Standard 7: Collaboration

BVI.7.K1 Role in conveying, to families and teams, information about the impact and implications of visual impairment on development and learning and access to the general and expanded core curriculum
BVI.7.K2 Role in working collaboratively with families and teams for referral for counseling, therapy, or other services to address the unique needs of visual impairment
BVI.7.K3 Role in increasing awareness of accessibility in physical and virtual environments and improving equitable access to information for families and the educational team
BVI.7.K4 Importance of role models with visual impairment for a full range of individual learners across settings


BVI.7.S1 Collaborate with educational team and families on service delivery issues unique to visual impairment
BVI.7.S2 Collaborate with technology and curriculum development staff on accessibility needs
BVI.7.S3 Serve as liaison between medical care providers, families, and other members of the educational team
BVI.7.S4 Collaborate with vision care professionals to facilitate access to the general and expanded core curriculum
BVI.7.S5 Collaborate with families and orientation and mobility specialists to reinforce orientation and mobility skills and other expanded core curriculum skills
BVI.7.S6 Collaborate with families and other team members to plan and implement transitions
BVI.7.S7 Instruct and supervise paraeducators, and provide information to families and the educational team in nonvisual strategies that promote independence and autonomy
BVI.7.S8 Instruct and supervise paraeducators and braille transcribers, and provide information to families and the educational team on the production of accessible media
BVI.7.S9 Collaborate with families and the educational team to promote literacy development
BVI.7.S10 Collaborate with assistive technology professionals to identify and support customized tools to meet the accessibility needs of individuals with visual impairment
Last Updated:  6 March, 2021

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